In terms of sharee’ah or Islamic terminology, shirk means ascribing a partner or rival to Allaah in Lordship (ruboobiyyah), worship or in His names and attributes.

The scholars divided shirk into two types:

1 – Major shirk

This means ascribing to someone other than Allaah something that belongs only to Allaah, such as Lordship (ruboobiyyah), divinity (uloohiyyah) and the divine names and attributes (al-asma’ wa’l-sifaat).

This kind of shirk may sometimes be outward, such as the shirk of those who worship idols and graves, or the dead or absent. Or it may sometimes be hidden, such as those who put their trust in other gods besides Allaah, or the shirk and kufr of the hypocrites because they make an outward display of Islam and conceal their kufr and shirk.

Shirk may sometimes take the form of beliefs or words or actions:

The belief that there is someone else who must be obeyed absolutely besides Allaah. Or by loving a created being as they love Allaah.

Shirk may sometimes take the form of words:

The words such as those who make du’aa’ or pray to someone other than Allaah.

Shirk may sometimes take the form of actions:

Such as one who sacrifices, prays or prostrates to something other than Allaah.

2 – Minor shirk

This includes everything that may lead to major shirk, or which is described in the texts as being shirk, but does not reach the extent of being major shirk.

This is usually of two types:

1 – Being emotionally attached to some means which have no basis and  for which Allaah has not given permission, such as believing in some objects that they offer protection or that they ward off the evil eye.

2 – Venerating some people or things in a way that does not go so far as ascribing lordship to them, such as swearing by something other than Allaah, or saying, “Were it not for Allaah and So and so,” etc.


What the Muslim must do is to avoid shirk in both its minor and major forms. The greatest sin is shirk and transgression against the unique rights of Allaah, which are to be worshipped and obeyed alone, with no partner or associate. Hence Allaah has decreed that the mushrikeen will abide forever in Hell and has told us that He will not forgive them, and He has forbidden Paradise to them.





“Verily, Allaah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He wills; and whoever sets up partners with Allaah in worship, he has indeed invented a tremendous sin”. [al-Nisa’ 4:48] 

“Verily, whosoever sets up partners (in worship) with Allaah, then Allaah has forbidden Paradise to him, and the Fire will be his abode. And for the Zaalimoon (polytheists and wrongdoers) there are no helpers”. [al-Maa’idah 5:72]

Every wise and religiously-committed person should fear shirk for himself and should turn to his Lord, asking Him to help him avoid shirk, as al-Khaleel [Ibraaheem – peace be upon him] said:  “and keep me and my sons away from worshipping idols”. [Ibraaheem 14:35 – interpretation of the meaning]

And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allaah as rivals (to Allaah). They love them as they love Allaah”. [al-Baqarah 2:165]

“Then do not set up rivals unto Allaah (in worship) while you know (that He Alone has the right to be worshipped)”. [al-Baqarah 2:22] 

“And they set up rivals to Allaah, to mislead (men) from His path! Say: ‘Enjoy (your brief life)! But certainly, your destination is the (Hell) Fire!’” . [Ibraaheem 14:30]



The heart is of three types:

  • Correct heart
  • Dead heart
  • Diseased heart

(i) The correct heart that is secure from all desires that oppose the command o f Allah and His prohibitions, and it is secure form all doubts that contradict what He informs. Just as it is secure from worshipping anything else besides Allah and from seeking judgement from any person other than His Messenger.
(ii) The dead heart, this being the opposite o f the correct heart containing no life, neither knowing its Lord nor w orshipping Him.
(iii) The heart that has some life but also has a defect. So it contains love o f Allah, faith in Him, sincerity and trust towards Him from those things that are essendal to it remaining alive. It also contains the love o f vain desires and preference for them, despicable morals and manners from those things that cause it to die, and it is condnously wavering between these two conditions.
So the first type o f heart is the living, humble, soft and gentle heart. The second is the dry, harsh and dead heart. The third is the heart which is diseased, it can either be made secure or have its destruction sealed.


There’s a beautiful supplication from the sunnah in which the verb of satara is used. Part of the morning and evening adhkaar (remembrance) is that the Prophet(saw) used to supplicate:
O Allah, I ask You for pardon and well-being in this life and the next. O Allah, I ask You for pardon and well-being in my religious and worldly affairs, and my family and my wealth. O Allah, veil my weaknesses (Allahumma-stur ‘awraatee) and set at ease my dismay. O Allah, preserve me from the front and from behind and on my right and on my left and from above, and I take refuge with You lest I be swallowed up by the earth. [Ibn Maajah, saheeh]
Memorize this comprehensive dua’, make it part of your daily routine, and get immensely rewarded for invoking As-Sitteer and reviving a sunnah of the Prophet salallahu ’alayhi wa sallam!

Assignment 6-Some verses that speak about the creation of Allah in Quran:

Some verses that speak about the creation of Allah in Quran:

  • We have built the heaven with (the power of Our) hands, and We are expanding (it) (Surah Al-Dhariyat, 51:47).
  • Then He proportioned him and breathed into him from His [created] soul and made for you hearing and vision and hearts; little are you grateful. (Surah As-Sajda, 32.9).
  • “Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding. Those who remember Allâh (always, and in prayers) standing, sitting, and lying down on their sides, and think deeply about the creation of the heavens and the earth, (saying): “Our Lord! You have not created (all) this without purpose, glory to You! (Exalted be You above all that they associate with You as partners). Give us salvation from the torment of the Fire”. [Qur’an 3:190-191]


At-Tirmidhi (1999), Abu Dawood (4091) and Ibn Maajah (59) narrated from ‘Abdullah ibn Mas‘ood that the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “No one will enter Paradise in whose heart is an atom’s weight of arrogance and no one will enter Hell in whose heart is an atom’s weight of faith.” A man said: What if I like my clothes to look nice and my shoes to look nice? He said: “Verily Allah loves beauty; rather arrogance means rejecting the truth and looking down on people.”
Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh at-Tirmidhi.
What this hadeeth means is that no one will enter Paradise without being exposed to the possibility of requital or punishment; he may be punished or he may be pardoned, unlike the obedient believer who is free of this major sin, who will enter Paradise without being exposed to the possibility of entering Hell.
Arrogance is a blameworthy characteristic which is the feature of Iblees and his cohorts in this world, those on whose hearts Allaah has placed a seal.
The first one who showed arrogance towards Allaah and His creation was the accursed Iblees, when Allaah commanded him to prostrate to Adam and he refused and was arrogant, and said, “I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire, and him You created from clay.”
Arrogance is one of the characteristics of Iblees, so whoever wants to be arrogant should realize that he is acquiring a characteristic of the devils, and that he is not acquiring a characteristic of the noble angels who obeyed their Lord and fell down in prostration.